Three main schools of thought for Digital ITC footprint:

According to researcher Gautheir Roussilhe there are three main schools of thought for modelling digital ICT climate emissions:

Malmodin & Andrae are both Swedish; Malmodin is consider an optimist; Andrae & Lofti are considered pessimistic. Roussilhe sets this out on page 31 of this French language analysis that each view the ratio of impacts between Data Centre, Networks and Devices differently:

Data centres334118
Total footprint size623 MtCO2e1207 MtCO2e690 MtCO2e

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The Shift Project

The [[Shift Project]], Paris, March 2019 - 3.7% of total emissions in 2019, growing from 2.5% in 2013 (source). Widely quoted (the BBC, Climate Care & the New Scientist). Scope include production. Shift blames the growth on video.

Shift's estimates for video streaming have been challenged by the IEA: - which Shift responded to, acknowledging the error but not adjusting their basic figure.